- c.59: Born
- February/March 51: Death of Ptolemy's father, Ptolemy XII Auletes. He is succeeded by Cleopatra VII
- Summer 50: Cleopatra accepts her brother Ptolemy XIII as co-ruler
- Summer 49: Sole rule of Ptolemy XIII, recognized by both Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, and his opponent, Pompey the Great.
- Cleopatra remains queen in the Thebaid, and accepts Ptolemy XIV as co-ruler.
- 48: Caesar defeats Pompey (battle of Pharsalus); Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed by courtiers of Ptolemy XIII
- Caesar arrives in Egypt and orders Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII to disband their armies, but instead, war breaks out (text).
- January 47: Ptolemy is killed in action
- Ptolemy XIV, now officially Cleopatra's husband, and his sister Arsinoe IV are made rulers of Cyprus
- Spring 47: Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis
- 46: Ptolemy XIV is recognized as Cleopatra's co-ruler again; the two are in Rome
- March 44: Julius Caesar is killed (text); Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV return to Egypt, where Ptolemy is killed by Cleopatra (after 26 July 44)
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