Smyrna (Greek Σμύρνη): Greek town in Asia Minor, modern İzmir.
- Situated at the estuary of the Hermus River
- Belongs to an Early Bronze Age civilization in the (north)eastern Aegean Sea and has ceramics that resembles Troy I-III, Lesbos, and Samos.
- According to legend, founded after the Ionian migration, when Greeks from the homeland crossed the Aegean Sea and settled in Asia Minor. The settlers in Smyrna were from Aeolia. Later, the town was taken over by Ionian Greeks, exiled from Colophon.
- s.VII BCE: Flourishing town Old Smyrna, which was captured by the Lydian king Alyattes (r.c.600-c.560), who destroyed the town
- The people living in the area rebuilt Smyrna after many centuries, after Alexander the Great had liberated the Greek towns in Asia Minor (334 BCE). The site they chose, was eight kilometers from Old Smyrna, on the other side of the gulf. However, it was only during the reign of Antigonus Monophthalmus and Lysimachus that they were really able to build a city (288 BCE).
- When the Romans added Asia Minor to their empire, Smyrna was the third largest city, after Ephesus and Pergamon
- Acropolis/citadel; a stadion and a theater at the foot of the hill; an agora with a cryptoporticus (second century CE); temple of Zeus in the neighborhood of the modern museum; a monument for Homer, who was believed to have been a Smyrniote
- First century: Nicetes of Smyrna creates the Second Sophistic
- During the reign of Antoninius Pius (r.138-161), there is a border dispute with Ephesus. There is also an earthquake in 155 CE.
- CE 156: Martyrdom of Polycarp of Smyrna
- CE 178: Heavy earthquake (Aelius Aristides, "Lament for Smyrna"); recovery paid by Marcus Aurelius.
- In Late Antiquity, there was a bishop
- Repairs in the citadel during the reigns of Arcadius (r.395-408) and Heraclius (r.610-641)