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Apkallū (Seven Sages)

Apkallū: the mythological seven "wise men" who were the teachers of humankind.

Neo-Assyrian plaque of Oannes
Neo-Assyrian plaque of Oannes
In ancient Mesopotamian myth, it was believed that the gods created humankind to cultivate the soil and make sure that the gods - by means of sacrifice - would receive their meals. However, the first people did not really know how to do the job they were supposed to do, and therefore, the gods sent the Apkallū, the seven sages.

The first one of these was Ea, or Oannes (as Berossus calls him), who had not only the body of a fish, but also the feet, arms, head, and voice of a man. He taught the people how to write and how to do mathematics, but also how to build cities, found temples, make laws, draw borders, divide land, plant seeds, and harvest fruits. Oannes also explained to the first humans how the world had been created.

There were other Apkallū. Each of them was associated with one of the cities of old, and they taught the people.

The story of the Apkallū is told by Berossus.note In the Epic of Gilgameš, they are mentioned as the builders of the walls of Uruk. They are also mentioned in ritual texts and are represented in Palace S in Pasargadae. It is likely that the Greeks copied the idea, and created their seven sages after the mythological heptad.

This page was created in 2010; last modified on 10 March 2014.