Aeolian Islands or Liparaean Islands: archipelago northeast of Sicily.
- Lipara (Lipari)
- Strongyle (Stromboli)
- Hiera (Vulcano)
- Didyme (Salina; picture, background)
- Euonymos (Panarea)
- Erikussa (Alicudi)
- Phoinikussa (Filicudi; picture, foreground)
It appears that in the Archaic age, only the main island, Lipara, was occupied; Greeks from Cnidus founded a colony in c.600. Later, the Liparans also lived on the other islands, except for Hiera, which was too rich in sulfur to be a pleasant place to live. This sulfur, however, contributed to the wealth of the islands, because it could be exported.The Athenians (in 427) and Carthaginians have attempted to conquer the islands, but Lipara, which was sometimes a pirates' nest, more or less retained its independence. The Roman historian Livy tells a story about the pious behavior of its inhabitants in 394 VC.note[Livy, History of Rome Since the Foundation 5.28.1-5.] In 252 BCE, during the First Punic War, the Romans occupied the archipelago. It became a normal part of the Roman Empire, with normal facilities like an amphitheater. Exiles were sometimes sent to these islands (e.g., Plautilla).