This is the new Livius website. We are currently converting the old website, but this will take some time yet. Please report any errors.

A new magazine on ancient history

Jona Lendering (webmaster of is involved in a plan to start a new magazine about the ancient world. Sounds interesting? Please take the survey.

More information


Gogdara: town in a part of the Swat valley that is known for several important Buddhist monuments.

Near Odigram, Gogdara rock is just off the main road in a small village. According to several scholars, the petroglyphs were incised in c.1000 BCE. Many travelers, including Alexander the Great, may have seen the animals and chariots you can see over here.

On the right-hand side, you will notice that there are several more recent additions. This is a Buddhist addition from the sixth century CE.

A Buddhist relief
A Buddhist relief
Personally, I liked the contrast between the ancient reliefs and the Pathan children that were playing next to it. We visited the place in 2004. Unfortunately, the valley was taken over by the Taliban in 2008, and I would not be surprised if the ancient monuments are now destroyed.

This page was created in 2004; last modified on 31 March 2014.