Uruk King List: historiographical document from ancient Babylonia, mentioning the length of the reigns of several kings from Kandalanu (r.647-627) to the Seleucid king Seleucus II Callinicus (r.246-226/225).
The Uruk King List (also known as "King List 5") is an important historiographical document from ancient Babylonia. It mentions the length of the reigns of several kings, beginning with Kandalanu (647-627) and continuing to the Seleucid king Seleucus II Callinicus (246-226/225). Together the Babylonian King List of the Hellenistic Period, the Uruk King list is a useful text for those who are reconstructing the chronology of Babylonia in the late fourth to mid-second centuries.
Unless it was stolen when the museum was looted in April 2003, the cuneiform tablet (IM 65066) is in the Bagdad Museum. On this website, you will find a slightly adapted transcription by A.K. Grayson, from the Reallexikon der Assyriologie, s.v. "Königslisten und Chroniken".
Chronological notes have been added; the right-hand column is a modern approximation of regnal dates.
Description of the tablet
This list of kings of Babylonia and their regnal years, which appears on a fragment from the middle of a small tablet found at Uruk, covers in its preserved portion the period (obverse) from Kandalanu (r.647-627 BCE) to Darius I (522-486 BCE) and from (reverse) Darius III (r.335-331 BCE) to Seleucus II (r.246-226/225 BCE). The script is late Babylonian and the tablet was obviously inscribed some time after the reign of Seleucus II.
- R. Borger, Archiv für Orientforschung 25 (1974-1977) 165ff.
- J.J.A. van Dijk, Vorläufiger Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka 18, pages 53-60.
- G.F. Del Monte, Testi dalla Babilonia Ellenistica. Volume I. Testi Cronografici (1997 Pisa, Roma)
- A.K. Grayson, from the Reallexikon der Assyriologie, s.v. "Königslisten und Chroniken".
- A.K. Grayson, 'Assyrian and Babylonian King Lists,' in: Lišan mithurti. (Festschrift Von Soden) (Kevelaer : Neukirchen-Vluyn : Butzon & Bercker; 1969) Plate III.
|1'note[The reconstruction of lines 1-2 was proposed by R.Borger. Aššurbanipal was king of Assyria in 668-631, and appointed his brothers Šamaš-šuma-ukîn and Kandalanu as kings of Babylonia.] /MU 21\||[mAššur-bâni-apli]||Aššurbanipal||21 years||668-631|
|2' ša-niš||/m\Šamaš-šuma-ukîn||Šamaš-šuma-ukîn||at the same time||667-648|
|3' MU 21||mK[an-da]-la-an||Kandalanu||21 years||647-627|
|4' MU 1||m dSîn2-šumu-lîšir2||Sin-šumliširnote[Sin-šumlišir and Sin-šar-iškûn acted as some sort of Assyrian governors.]||1 year||626|
|5' u||m dSîn2-šarra-iš-ku-un||and Sin-šar-iškûn||Id.||Id|
|6' MU 21||m dNabû-apla-usur||Nabopolassar||21 years||626note[According to the Babylonian chronicle known as ABC 2, the Babylonian general Nabopolassar was recognized as king on 23 November 626.]-605|
|7' [M]U 43||m dNabû-kuddurî-usur||Nebuchadnezzar [II]||43 years||604-562|
|8' [M]U 2||mAmîl-dMarduk||Amel-Marduk||2 years||561-560|
|9' [MU] /3\ 8 ITI||m dNergal2-šarra-usur||Neriglissar||3 years, 8 months||559-556|
|10' [(...)]note[Labaši-Marduk probably ruled just 3 months at the end of 556, but the tablet leaves space for something like MU 1.] 3 ITI||mLa-ba-ši-dMarduk||Labaši-Marduk||[accession year] 3 months||556|
|11' [MU] /17?\||m dNabû-nâ'id||Nabonidus||17? years||555-539|
|12' [MU x||mK]ur-aš||Cyrus [the Great]||[x years]||539-530|
|13' [MU x||mKambu-z]i-i||Cambyses [II]||[x years]||530-522|
|14' [MU x||mDaria-m]uš||Darius [the Great]||[x years]||522-486|
|1' [š]á MU šá-nu-ú||mNidin-dB[êl]||[...] whose second name is Nidin-Bêlnote[The Uruk King List is the only evidence that the reign of the Achaemenid king Darius III Codomannus was preceded by a ruler named Nidin-Bêl. A scribal error is likely, but it must be noted that the chaotic transition from Artaxerxes III Ochus to Darius III leaves sufficient room for a short-lived Babylonian rebellion: in Egypt, a native ruler named Khababash revolted, in the far west, the Yaunâ were restless, and according to the Dynastic prophecy even Darius started his career as a rebel satrap.]||[...]||336??|
|2' [M]U 5||mDa-ra-a-muš||Darius [III Codomannus]||5 years||336-331|
|3' MU 7?||mA-lik-sa-an-dar||Alexander [the Great]||7? years||331-323|
|4' MU 6||mPi-il-ip-su||Philip [III Arridaeus]||6 years||323-317|
|5' MU 6||mAt-tu-gu-un||Antigonus [the One-eyed]||6 years||317-311|
|6' MU 31||mSi-lu-ku||Seleucus [I Nicator]||31 years||311-281|
|7' MU 22note[Twenty-two years is probably a scribal error.]||mAn-ti-'u-ku-su||Antiochus [I Soter]||22 years||281-261|
|8' MU 15||mAn-ti-'u-ku-su||Antiochus [II Theos]||15 years||261-246|
|9' [MU] [...]note[All editions have /20\ but the tablet is badly damaged. A photo can be found in A.K. Grayson, "Assyrian and Babylonian King Lists" in: W. Röllig (ed.), Lišan mithurti. Festschrift Wolfram Freiherr von Soden zum 19.6.1968 gewidmet von Schülern und Mitarbeitern (1969); plate III.]||mSi-lu-k[u]||Seleucus [II Callinicus]||[... years]||246-225|