Nippur: ancient Sumerian city, sanctuary of Enlil, modern Nuffar.
- Founded in the Chalcolithic
- Sumerian, famous for its sanctuary of the god Enlil, the Ekur ("house of the mountain"). Enlil replaced the supreme god Anu as supreme deity of the Sumerian pantheon. The early history of the Ekur is described in the Tummal Chronicle (CM 7)
- Occupied by Sargon of Akkad
- Ur III period: constructions by king Ur-Nammu of Ur
- Respected by the Elamites as well (e.g., Rim-Sin of Larsa)
- Several phases of reconstruction of the Ekur: under the Kassite kings and the Assyrian kings (who identified Enlil with Aššur)
- Important academy for scribes
- The Achaemenids deported a group of Lydians to Nippur, where a community of Lydians is recorded in the Murašu Archive.
- In the Seleucid age, the Ekur was turned into a fortress
- Demise in the Sasanian age