Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions: collection of Old Persian cuneiform texts from the sixth, fifth, and fourth centuries BCE, left by the Achaemenid kings on their official monuments.

[King Darius the Great was buried at Naqš-e Rustam. The inscriptions on the upper and central registers of his tomb (DNa and DNb) are well-known, but there are several smaller texts on the same monument: two trilingual honorific inscriptions for the courtiers Gobryas and Aspathines, and inscriptions on the figures supporting Darius' throne. Because inscription DNe mentions the Macedonians as subjects, it can be dated after 512.]

DNd: Honorific inscription of Aspathines

  1. Aspacanâ \ vaçabara \ Dârayavahauš \ xš
  2. âyathiyahyâ \ isuvâm \ dârayatiy

Aspathines, the bowbearer,
holds king Darius' battle-axe.