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Phoenicians (Greek: Φοίνικες): Greek name of the inhabitants of the ancient cities of Aradus, Tripoli, Byblos, Berytus, Sidon, and Tyre. In the Iron Age, they founded colonies on Cyprus (Kition), on Sicily (Motya, Panormus), in Libya (Lepcis, Oea, Sabratha), in Africa (Utica, Carthage), Andalusia (Malaca, Gadeira), and Morocco (Tingis, Lixus, Essaouira). These colonies, usually called “Punic”, were an important trade network.

Name and Topography


Early Phoenician History

Archaic Colonization

Colonized region

Names of (some) colonies

Colonies on Cyprus Kition
Colony on Malta Melita
Colonies in Libya Lepcis Magna, Oea, Sabratha
Colonies on Sicily Lilibaeum, Motya, Panormus
Colony on Sardinia Caralis
Colonies in Africa Meninx,Thapsos, Hadrumetum, Carthage, Utica
Colonies in Numidia Hippo, Iol
Colonies in Andalusia Malaca, Carteia, Gadir
Colonies in the far west Tingis, Lixus, Essaouira

Assyrian Attacks

Babylonia, Persia


This page was created in 2017; last modified on 11 November 2018.