Legio I Maximiana: one of the legions of the later Roman empire. Its name means "the legion of Maximianus".
This legion was probably founded in 296 or 297 by the emperor Diocletian, together with II Flavia Constantia, to defend the southern part of Egypt against neighboring tribes. The twin units were stationed in the neighborhood of Thebes. The legion is called after Maximianus, Diocletian's colleague as emperor.
In 354, the Theban legions were stationed in Thrace in the neighborhood of Adrianople (modern Edirne); at the beginning of the fifth century, they were still there. It is almost certain that I Maximiana was involved in the great battle of Adrianople in 378, in which the Tervingi of king Fritigern defeated the Roman emperor Valens.