Kesteren: site along the Lower Rhine with a concentration of Roman finds, perhaps the site of a limes fort.

The modern name Kesteren suggests the presence of an ancient castle (castra). At this place, a Roman cemetery has been excavated (in 1974), whereas the remains of a civil settlement were discovered along the modern Nedereindsestraat. It seems that this village was surrounded by a ditch and was occupied until c.225. The presence of soldiers in the neighborhood can be deduced from graffiti.

The expression castra suggests that the fort was again in use in late Antiquity, because this was the common name of a military settlement in the fourth century. Further research will be difficult because the river Rhine has changed its course several times during the past centuries, and probably destroyed the site.

The old identification of Kesteren with "Carvo", a place known from the Peutinger Map, has turned out to be incorrect; Levefanum probably is identical to Herwen (Latin: Carvium).


J.G.M. Verhagen argues in "De Gelderse limes herzien. Een nieuwe identificatie van Romeinse plaatsnamen in Gelderland" (in: Archeobrief 17/3 (2013) 29-37) against the identification of Kesteren and Carvo.

This page was created in 2003; last modified on 11 August 2020.