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Alexander the Great as founder of Alexandria
- The site of Alexandria was chosen in January 330 BCE; the city was founded on 7 April (text). It replaced an older town, Rhacotis.
- This was an entirely Greek city, independent from Egypt.
- During the reign of Ptolemy I Soter, it became the capital of the Ptolemaic Empire.
- Center of corn trade; production of papyrus; glass, metal, textiles.
- The Jews and natives were second- and even third class citizens.
- At the beginning of the common era, the town had at least 300,000 male, free inhabitants; a total population of over a million is not impossible.
- Demetrius of Phaleron, Euclid, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, the translators of the Septuagint, Callimachus of Cyrene, Apollonius of Rhodes, Aristarchus of Samos.
- 168: Roman pressure forces Antiochus IV Epiphanes to retire from Alexandria
- 47: Alexandrian War: Julius Caesar puts Cleopatra VII Philopator on the throne
- 30 BCE: Captured by Octavian; death of Cleopatra; capital of Roman province; the governor is not a senator but a Roman knight.
- Diodorus of Sicily; Philo of Alexandria; Julius Alexander
- c. 8 CE: Two legions at Alexandria: III Cyrenaica and XXII Deiotariana
- 38 CE: Pogrom
- Ministery of Mark?
- 68: Another pogrom
- 69: Vespasian proclaimed emperor
- 115-117: Anti-Jewish riots (more...)
- 125: III Cyrenaica replaced by II Traiana Fortis
- 130: Hadrian visits the city
- Ptolemy of Alexandria, Appian of Alexandria
- 175: Marcus Aurelius visits the city
- After 200: increasing Christian influence; Clement of Alexandria
- 215: Visit by Caracalla
- 252: Origen banished
- 269/270: Captured by the Palmyrene troops
- 298: Sacked by Diocletian; legion III Diocletiana added to the garrison
- 328-335: Athanasius bishop
- 346-356: Athanasius bishop for the second time
- 357-358 Georgios bishop of Alexandria; the relics of Andrew and Luke brought to Constantinople
- 363: Visit by Julianus Apostata
- 365: Earthquake
- 366-373: Athanasius bishop for the third time
- 389: All pagan monuments in Alexandria, including the Museum, destroyed
- 391: Destruction of the Serapeum
- 414: The last leader of the philosophical school, Hypatia, is lynched by a Christian mob
- 541 Plague
- 608-610: during the war between the emperors Phocas and Heraclius; the southern harbor is destroyed
- 619: The Sasanian king Khusrau sacks the city
- 642: Replaced as capital of Egypt by Cairo
- 645-646: Reoccupied by the Byzantine commander Manuel
- Alexandria has been called Alexander's most lasting legacy
Sphinx of Horemheb, Serapeum, Alexandria
One of the tombs in the catacombs of Alexandria
Qasr Libya, East Church, mosaic 1.10.c (the Pharos of Alexandria)