Julius Polemon II

Julius Polemon II: king in Pontus and Cilicia (r.38 - after 68 CE).

Polemon's mother was a lady named Tryphaena, who was a daughter of Polemon I and Pythodoris; the father of Polemon II was the Thracian king Cotys, which means that the last rulers of Thrace were Polemon's brothers. Young princes like Polemon were often raised at the imperial court in Rome and indeed, Polemon was acquainted with Caligula, who made him king of Pontus in 38 CE.note He was also made ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom, but he was replaced in 41 and received in exchange a part of Cilicia.note

In 48, king Polemon married Berenice, a daughter of Herod Agrippa I, the sister of Agrippa II, and the widow of Herod of Chalcis. According to Flavius Josephus, he accepted the Jewish faith.note The marriage ended in a divorce; Polemon's second wife was a Julia Mamaea.

It is possible that when the emperor Nero reorganized the provincial boundaries in Anatolia,note, Polemon had to give up Pontus and kept Cilicia only. However this may be, the history of Pontus as an independent kingdom had reached its end. When Polemon died (after the year 68), Cilicia was annexed by the Roman Empire as well.

This page was created in 2019; last modified on 21 April 2020.