Ptolemy XII Auletes ("the flutist") or Neos Dionysos ("new Dionysus"): king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 80 to 58 and from 55 to 51.
- Father: Ptolemy IX Soter
- Mother: an Egyptian lady
- First wife: his sister, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena
- Daughter: Berenice IV
- Second wife: an Egyptian lady from a Memphite priestly family
- 28 June 116: Death of Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who is succeeded by Cleopatra III. She wants to rule with Ptolemy X Alexander, but the Alexandrines force her to accept Ptolemy IX Soter, who is fourteen years old, as co-ruler.
- After 115: Birth of Ptolemy XII Auletes, son of king Ptolemy IX Soter
- October 107: Ptolemy IX is forced to flee to Cyprus, leaving his wives and children behind; Ptolemy X Alexander becomes co-ruler
- 103: Antiochus IX Cyzicenus supports the Samarians against the Hasmonaean king John Hyrcanus of Judaea; Ptolemy IX Soter supports Antiochus, hoping that Judaea will be a first step to a return to Egypt.
- 103: Ptolemy X Alexander sends all Ptolemaic children to Kos, where they are safe.
- 89: Outbreak of the Second Mithridatic War: king Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus attacks the Roman possessions in Asia
- 88: Ptolemy XII Auletes and the other princes are handed over to Mithridates. At the same time, Ptolemy IX Soter replaces Ptolemy X Alexander, who is killed soon after.
- 84: Ptolemy XII Auletes is engaged to a daughter of Mithridates.
- 80: Death of Ptolemy IX Soter; he is succeeded by a Roman appointee, Ptolemy XI Alexander, but this king is lynched almost immediately after his arrival in Alexandria.
- Before 11 September 80, Ptolemy XII Auletes has been recognized as king.
- 80/79: He marries his sister, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena.
- 26 March 76: traditional coronation as pharaoh; he embarks upon a policy of improving the position of the native population, and marries to an Egyptian lady
- 76: Birth of Berenice IV
- 70/69: Birth of Cleopatra VII
- Fall of Cleopatra VI Tryphaena
- 67: The Roman commander Pompey the Great is in the east, fighting against Cilician Pirates, king Mithridates VI of Pontus (Third Mithridatic War), and tribes in Armenia.
- 65: Although Ptolemy XII supports Pompey, Rome discusses the annexation of Egypt
- 64: End of the Seleucid Empire; it becomes a Roman province (Syria)
- 63: Pompey conquers Judaea (more...); revolts in Egypt
- 61: Birth of Ptolemy XIII
- 59: Ptolemy XII Auletes promises 6,000 talents to Pompey and Julius Caesar (consul in 59), and is recognized as "ally and fried of the Roman nation"; amnesty for the rebels in Egypt
- c.59: Birth of Ptolemy XIV
- 58: Rome annexes Cyprus; riots in Alexandria; Ptolemy is forced to flee (September); the new ruler of Egypt is Berenice IV
- 57: Ptolemy visits Cyprus and Rome, but is unable to obtain support; he goes to Ephesus
- 56/55: The Roman governor in Syria, Aulus Gabinius, bribed by Ptolemy XII and encouraged by Pompey, breaks off a campaign in support of the Parthian king Mithradates IV, and agrees to support Ptolemy, who is in Alexandria in March 55; a Roman military unit supports the king. Berenice is executed in July.
- 52: Cleopatra VII made co-ruler
- February/March 51: Death.
Egyptian title: Iwaenpanetjernehem Setepptah Irmaat; ankhdjet meryptah siese ("Son of the avenging god, Chosen by Ptah, Dispenser of justice; may he live forever, beloved of Ptah, son of Isis"; "avenging god" is the common translation of Soter, the surname of Ptolemy IX, but also refers to the god Horus, the reborn Osiris/Dionysus)
Succeeded by: Cleopatra VII