Appian, The Macedonian Wars 2

Appian of Alexandria (c.95-c.165): one of the most underestimated of all Greek historians, author of a Roman History in twenty-four books.

The book on the Macedonian Wars belongs to the less preserved parts, but fortunately, we have access to Appian's sources Polybius or Livy.

The translation was made by Horace White; notes by Jona Lendering.

The Second Macedonian War (Cont'd)

[6] [At the beginning of the war, the Aetolians sided with Rome again, whereas Macedonia's allies, the Achaeans, did not support Philip. Soon, Sulpicius was able to invade Macedonia. From the beginning of 198, a new consul, Titus Quinctius Flamininus was in charge.]

[From the Vatican manuscript of Cardinal Mai] Philip, king of Macedonia, had a conference with Flamininus,note which had been brought about by the ambassadors of the Epirots. Flamininus ordered Philip to retire from Greece, not on account of the Romans, but of the Greek cities themselves and to make good the damage he had done to the aforesaid cities.

[7] [From the Suda] A shepherd promised to guide an army well equipped for the climb by a mountain path in three days' time.

[8] [From Constantine Porphyrogenitus, The Embassies] Lucius Quinctiusnote sent envoys to the Achaean League to persuade them, together with the Athenians and Rhodians, to abandon Philip and join the Romans, and to ask them to furnish aid as allies. But they, being troubled by a civil war and also by one with Nabis, the neighboring tyrant of Lacedaemon, were divided in mind and hesitated. The greater part of them preferred the alliance of Philip and sided against the Romans on account of certain outrages against Greece committed by Sulpicius, the former commander. When the Roman faction urged their views with vehemence, most of their opponents left the assembly in disgust, and the remainder, being forced to yield by the smallness of their number, entered into an alliance with Lucius and followed him at once to the siege of Corinth, bringing their engines with them.

[9] [From Constantine Porphyrogenitus, The Embassies] Flamininusnote came into conference with Philip a second time at the Malian gulf. When the Rhodians, the Aetolians, and Amynander, king of the Athamanes, made their complaints against Philip, Flamininus ordered him to remove his garrison from Phocis, and required both parties to send ambassadors to Rome. When this was done the Greeks asked the Roman Senate to require Philip to remove from their country the three garrisons which he called "the fetters of Greece": the one at Chalcis, which threatened the Boeotians, the Euboeans, and the Locrians; the one at Corinth, which closed the door of the Peloponnese; and the third at Demetrias, which lay, as it were, in ambush for the Aetolians and the Magnesians. The Senate asked Philip's ambassadors what the king's views were respecting the garrisons. When they answered that they did not know, the Senate said that Flamininus should decide the question and do what he considered just. So the ambassadors took their departure from Rome. Flamininus and Philip, being unable to come to any agreement, resumed hostilities.

[10] [In June 197, the Romans defeated the Macedonians at Cynoscephalae.]

[From Constantine Porphyrogenitus, The Embassies] Philip, being defeated again, sent a herald to Flamininus to sue for peace, and again Flamininus granted him a conference, whereat the Aetolians were greatly displeased and accused him of being bribed by the king, and complained of his sudden change of mind as to all these matters. But he thought that it would not be to the advantage of the Romans, or of the Greeks, that Philip should be deposed and the Aetolian power made supreme. Perhaps, also, the unexpected greatness of the victory made him satisfied.

Having agreed upon a place where Philip should come, he directed the allies by cities to deliver their opinions. Some of them were disposed to be moderate, viewing suspiciously the mysteries of fortune as evinced in the calamities of Philip, and considering this disaster that had befallen him due not so much to weakness as to bad luck. But Alexander, the presiding officer of the Aetolians, said, "Flamininus cannot be ignorant that this victory will be of no advantage to the Romans or the Greeks unless the kingdom of Philip is overthrown."