Large island in Greece, north of Boeotia and Attica, southeast of Thessaly. Many mountains, rocky shores.
Three main cities: Chalcis (close to the Euripos, i.e., the narrow strait between Euboea and Boeotia), Eretria, and Carystus in the southeast.
Ninth century BCE: important trade center (exchange with Chios)
In the Archaic Age (c.800-500 BCE) active as metropolis, "mother city", in the colonization of Italy (e.g., Cumae) and the Chalcidice in the north; exchanging wine for metal with the Etruscans in the eight century BCE. According to the Athenian historian Thucydides, the first Greeks to settle on Sicily were from Chalcis.note[Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 6.3.]
Firts half of the sixth century: Lelantine War between Eretria and Chalcis in which other Greek cities were involved as well (Eretria and Miletus versus Chalcis and Samos); Eretria loses control of several islands in the Aegean Sea
506 BCE: Athenian intervention in Chalcis, which is garrisoned
499 BCE: Eretria and Athens intervene in the Ionian Revolt and sack Sardes, western capital of the Achaemenid Empire
490 BCE: While there is a conflict between Carystus and Eretria, the Persians retaliate for the Greek intervention in Sardes; Eretria is sacked, Carystus becomes pro-Persian, the Athenians defeat the Persian forces at Marathon
The island gradually becomes part of the Athenian realm
446 BCE: Anti-Athenian revolt; suppressed by Pericles; another Athenian colony at Histiaea
410 BCE: During the& Decelean War, Euboea becomes independent; creation of the Euboean League, which is not well-understood, but may have survived into Roman times