Cumae: Greek town in Italy, best-known for its prophetess, the Sibylla.
- Metal trade between the Etruscans and Greeks; c.750 BCE Pithecussae (Ischia); after that, Cumae founded on a hill on the mainland
- Avernian Lake; acropolis with two temples
- sVI: Etruscan attempt to seize Cumae; Aristodemus of Cumae repels them; battle of Aricia.note[Dionysius, Roman Antiquities 5.36.]
- c.474 BCE: naval battle of Cumae, Cumans and Syracusans versus Etruscans
- sV-IV: Wall
- c. 438 or 421: town captured by Samnites
- After one century, Roman control (cf. Capua, praefectus Capuam Cumas); provincial town; no decline, but other towns (e.g., Naples) rapidly became more important
- Hannibal's attempts to capture ports like Cumae and Puteoli - necessary to receive fresh troops - fail.
- 37-36 BCE: Agrippa uses Avernian Lake to train navy for attack on Sextus Pompeius
- Harbor silting up; quiet, rural townnote[Statius, Silvae 4.3.65; Juvenal, Satire 3.2.]
- 91 CE Via Domitiana Rome-Cumae/Puteoli
- Greek temples become Christian basilicas
- Late Antiquity: Byzantine fortress on the acropolis, 536 fortified by Belisarius; 542 captured by Totila; 553 recaptured by Narses