Appian, The Mithridatic Wars

Appian of Alexandria (c.95-c.165): one of the most underestimated of all Greek historians, author of a Roman History in twenty-four books.

Although only his books on the Roman Civil Wars survive in their entirety, large parts of other books have also come down to us. Fortunately, the Mithridatic wars belong to these better preserved parts. They are a very valuable source for the history of the Roman expansion in what is now called Turkey.

The translation was made by Horace White; notes by Jona Lendering.

There are two systems to divide the Mithridatic Wars: in 121 sections or 17 chapters. On these webpages, the text is divided into sections; the following table shows the division into chapters.



§1: Topographical introduction
§2: King Prusias II of Bithynia
§3: Prusias unsuccessfully attacks Attalus of Pergamon
§4: Conspiracy against Prusias
§5: Nicomedes becomes king of Bithynia
§6: War between Nicomedes and Prusias
§7: Death of Prusias

2 §8: Early history of Cappadocia
§9: Mithridates I Ktistes
§10: Mithridates VI Eupator and Cappadocia
§11: Manius Aquilius provokes war
§12: Speech of Pelopidas
§13: Speech of an envoy from Nicomedes
§14: Duplicity of the Roman legates

§15: Mithridates occupies Cappadocia; speech of Pelopidas
§16: Speech of Pelopidas

First Mithridatic War

§17: Outbreak of war
§18: Nicomedes defeated
§19: Collapse of the Roman forces
§20: Surrender of Oppius
§21: Death of Manius Aquilius

4 §22: Sulla sent to Asia
§23: Massacre of Romans in Asia
§24: Siege of Rhodes
§25: Naval engagements off Rhodes
§26: Unsuccessful attack on the Rhodian city walls
§27: Winter operations
5 §28: Athens supports Mithridates; digression on philosophers
§29: Quintus Braetius Sura
§30: Sulla besieges Piraeus
§31: Archelaus makes a sally
§32: Fighting near the walls of Piraeus
§33: Sulla sends Lucullus to procure ships
§34: The siege continued
§35: Famine in Athens
§36: Fighting underground
§37: Sulla repulsed from Piraeus
6 §38: Cannibalism in Athens; the city captured
§39: Capture of the Acropolis
§40: Continued siege of Piraeus
§41: Destruction of Piraeus
§42: Battle of Chaeronea
§43: Battle of Chaeronea
§44: The Romans take Archelaus' camp
§45: Slaughter of the Pontians
7 §46: Mithridates' countermeasures
§47: Fate of Chios
§48: Resistance against Mithridates
§49: Battle of Orchomenus
§50: Fighting during the night
8 §51: Sulla declared a public enemy
§52: Flaccus replaced by Fimbria
§53: Sack of Ilium
§54: Negotiations between Archelaus and Sulla
§55: Terms of treaty
§56: Negotiations between Mithridates and Sulla
§57: Speech of Sulla
§58: Speech of Sulla; Peace of Dardanus

§59: Despair of Fimbria
§60: Fimbria's suicide
§61: Sulla settles Asia
§62: Sulla's speech to the Ephesians
§63: Sulla collects a fine; piracy

Second Mithridatic War

§64: Causes of the Second Mithridatic War
§65: Mithridates appeals to Rome and defeats Murena
§66: Sulla orders Murena's withdrawal


The Entr'acte

§67: Mithridates and Tigranes
§68: Mithridates and Sertorius

Third Mithridatic War

§69: Mithridates' preparations
§70: Speech of Mithridates
§71: Invasion of Bithynia

11 §72: Lucullus outmaneuvers Mithridates
§73: Mithridates besieges Cyzicus
§74: Defense of the city
§75: Battle at the Rhyndacus
§76: Mithridates gives up the siege of Cyzicus
§77: Roman naval offensive in the Aegean
§78: Lucullus besieges towns in Pontus
12 §79: Lucullus invades Pontus
§80: Fight for Cabira
§81: Panic in the camp of Mithridates
§82: Mithridates takes refuge with Tigranes
§83: Lucullus reorganizes the conqered cities
§84: Lucullus invades Armenia
§85: Battle of Tigranocerta
§86: Capture of Tigranocerta
13 §87: Tigranes collects a new army
§88: Mithridates returns to Pontus
§89: Triarius defeated near Zela
§90: Recall of Lucullus
14 §91: Pompey invested with the command
§92: Digression on the Cilician pirates
§93: Digression on the Cilician pirates
§94: The Lex Gabinia
§95: Pompey attacks the Cilician pirates
§96: Pompey defeats the pirates
15 §97: The Lex Manilia
§98: Pompey invades Pontus
§99: Retreat of Mithridates
§100: Pompey overtakes and defeats Mithridates
§101: Mithridates' plans
§102: Mithridates in the Crimea
§103: Pompey in the Caucasus
§104: Surrender of Tigranes
§105: Pompey's arrangements
16 §106: Other Wars of Pompey
§107: Mithridates at Panticapaeum
§108: Revolt against Mithridates
§109: New plans of Mithridates
§110: Conspiracy of Pharnaces
§111: Death of Mithridates
§112: Necrology of Mithridates
§113: Mithridates' funeral

§114: Pompey reorganizes the East
§115: New cities
§116: Pompey's triumph
§117: Pompey's captives
§118: Subject nations
§119: Size of the Mithridatic war

War against Pharnaces

§120: Caesar's war against Pharnaces
§121: Later history of Pontus