Alexander the Great (5)

Alexander the Great (*356; r. 336-323): the Macedonian king who defeated his Persian colleague Darius III Codomannus and conquered the Achaemenid Empire. During his campaigns, Alexander visited a.o. Egypt, Babylonia, Persis, Media, Bactria, the Punjab, and the valley of the Indus. In the second half of his reign, he had to find a way to rule his newly conquered countries. Therefore, he made Babylon his capital and introduced the oriental court ceremonial, which caused great tensions with his Macedonian and Greek officers.

Chronology of Alexander's reign

336
Spring Parmenion leads vanguard into Asia
  Summer Murder of Artaxerxes IV; accession of Darius III
  October Murder of Philip (text); accession of Alexander
  Nov-Dec. Alexander gains support of the Greek towns
335
Summer Alexander campaigns in the Balkans
    Memnon's counterattack in Asia
  12? Sept. Fall of Thebes (text)
  Nov-Dec. Festivals at Dion and Aegae
334
May Alexander lands in Asia
  Early June Battle of the Granicus river (text)
  July Capture of Miletus
  August Start of the siege of Halicarnassus
333
Winter Alexander conquers Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia and Phrygia
  March-June Naval offensive of Memnon
  April-July Alexander in Gordium (text)
  July Death of Memnon
  Late July Alexander leaves Gordium
    Darius leaves Babylon
  July-Sept Pharnabazus continues the naval offensive
  September Alexander in Cilicia and falls ill (text)
  October Parmenion sent to the Syrian gates
    Alexander campaigns in West-Cilicia
  c.5 Nov. Battle of Issus (text)
  Dec.? Darius opens negotiations (text)
332
January Beginning of the siege of Tyre
  Spring Disintegration of Persian fleet
  July Fall of Tyre (text)
  Sept-Nov. Siege of Gaza (text)
  November Alexander visits Jerusalem? (text)
    Alexander enters Egypt
331 January Alexander in Heliopolis and Memphis
  March Alexander visits the oracle of Ammon (text)
  7 April Alexander founds Alexandria (text)
  June Alexander in Phoenicia and Syria
  July Reinforcements leave Macedonia
    Alexander's crosses the Euphrates
  Aug-Sept. Alexander campaigns in Mesopotamia
  1 Oct. Battle of Gaugamela
  22 Oct. Mazaeus surrenders Babylon to Alexander (Babylonian text; Latin text)
  15 Dec. Abulites surrenders Susa to Alexander
  22 Dec. Alexander leaves Susa
330 20 Jan. Battle of the Persian gate
  30 Jan. Alexander reaches Persepolis
  Jan-May Alexander at Persepolis (text)
  June Darius leaves Ecbatana
  c.17 July Death of Darius III at Choara; Bessus king (text)
  Aug-Sept. Alexander in Hyrcania, Parthia and Aria
  November Alexander in Drangiana; plot of Philotas
    Alexander in Ariaspa; assassination of Parmenion
329 February Armies unite in Arachosia
  April Alexander advances to Gandara
  Late May Alexander crosses the Hindu Kush (text)
  c. 1 June Alexander advances to the Oxus (text)
    Alexander captures Bessus
    Alexander advances to the Jaxartes
  July Alexander founds Alexandria EschatĂȘ
    Revolt in Sogdia, led by Spitamenes; battle of the Jaxartes
    Cavalry reorganized
328
Winter Alexander in Bactra
  Summer Campaigns in Sogdia and Bactria
  Autumn Murder of Clitus
  December Capture of Spitamenes
327
Winter Alexander in Maracanda and Nautaca
  Spring Capture of the Sogdian Rock (text)
  Summer Armies unite at Bactra. 
    Introduction of  proskynesis (text)
    Marriage to Roxane
  Late Summer Conspiracy of the pages; death of Callisthenes
326
February Hephaestion advances through Gandara to Indus
    Alexander campaigns in the Swat valley
    Alexander takes the Aornus rock
  April Armies unite near the Indus; advance to Taxila
  May Battle of the Hydaspes against Porus
  c. 26 June Crossing of the Acesines
  Late July Mutiny at the Hyphasis (text)
  September Beginning of fleet building
  November Alexander's fleet starts down the Hydaspes
325
January Campaign against the Mallians; Alexander wounded
  February Disaster at the confluence of Acesines and Indus
  April The Brahman rebellion
  June Craterus starts for Carmania
  c. 15 July Peithon's and other forces arrive at Patala
  Late August Alexander starts for Carmania
  15 Sept. Nearchus starts on his voyage (text)
    Alexander in Gedrosia (text)
  December Punishment of the satraps (text)
    Alexander meets Craterus in Carmania
324
January Alexander meets Nearchus in Carmania
  February Alexander in Pasargadae (text)
    Death of Calanus (text)
  March Alexander meets Nearchus in Susa
    Marriages at Susa (text)
  Summer Alexander's decree on the exiles (text)
  August Mutiny at Opis (text)
    Veterans set off with Craterus
  October Alexander at Ecbatana
  Late Oct. Death of Hephaestion
323 Winter Alexander requests divine honors
    Alexander campaigns against the Cossaeans
  April-May Alexander in Babylon
  May Preparations for campaign to Arabia
  11 June Alexander dies (Greek text; Babylonian text)