Darius III Codomannus: last Achaemenid king of the Persian Empire, ruled from 336 to 330.
- Father: Astanes
- Mother: Sisygambis
- Brother: Oxyathres
- Wife/sister: Statira
- Real name: Artašata
- As satrap of Armenia, Artašata fights against the Cadusians; he receives the surname Codomannus, which may mean "war-minded"
- 338, between 26 August and 25 September: death of Artaxerxes III Ochus (natural causes Diodorus' story about poisoning is contradicted by BM 71537)
- Accession of Artaxerxes IV Arses
- Egypt and Babylonia revolt (although the evidence for the insurrection of Nidin-Bêl is meager)
- Macedonia's king Philip II prepares an attack on Anatolia.
- The cuneiform text known as the Dynastic Prophecy proves that Artašata marches on Persepolis as a rebel and seized the throne
- 336, Summer: Artaxerxes IV is killed by his courtier Bagoas (text); Artašata becomes king under the name of Darius III Codomannus.
- 336, October: murder of Philip of Macedonia (text); accession of Alexander the Great
- 335, Operations against Babylonia and Egypt
- 334, May: Alexander lands in Asia
- 334, early June: Persian troops defeated in the Battle of the Granicus (text)
- 333, July: Darius in Babylon
- 333, November: Battle of Issus (text)
- 333, December: Darius opens negotiations (text)
- 332: Darius builds a new army
- 331, 1 October: battle of Gaugamela
- 331/330: Darius in Ecbatana
- 330, June: Darius leaves Ecbatana
- 330, July: death of Darius III at Choara; Bessus king (text)
Succeeded by: Bessus and Alexander the Great