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Cananefates: tribal formation in the west of the Roman province of Germania Inferior.
- Also spelled Cannenefates; prounounced with /H/
- Lived on the fertile sandy soils between the dunes and the peat bogs of the modern Dutch province Zuid Holland; between the estuaries of the Rhine and the Meuse (Helinium)
- Etymologies based on /konijn/, "dune rabbit", are incorrect because this animal was not living in Holland until the Middle Ages. One plausible etymology is *Kananēfaþīz, "lords of the boats".
- According to the Roman historian Tacitus, the Cananefates were closely related to the Batavians, spoke a similar language, and were equally courageous;note[Tacitus, Histories 4.15.1.] this implies a shared descent from the Chatti
- Cf. religion: Hiannanefatic Mothers
- According to Velleius Paterculus, they were subjected by Tiberius while they were still living in the east of the Netherlandsnote[Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.105.1.]
In the Roman Empire
- Mentioned by Pliny the Eldernote[Pliny the Elder, Natural History 4.101.]
- Several auxiliary units in the Roman army
- c.40, reign of Caligula: visit by the emperor; founding of Praetorium Agrippinae; jokes by a Cananefatian leader
- Other towns: Lugdunum, Matilo
- Capital: Municipium Cananefatium (Voorburg)
- Corbulo defeats Gannascus, commander a band of Chauci, who lived on the shores of the Wadden Sea in what is now the Dutch province of Groningen and the German Ostfriesland.
- Canal of Corbulo
- c.70: Batavian revolt: Brinno; attacks by Claudius Labeo
- Start of romanization; cf. Rijswijk-De Bult
- Soldiers served along the Danube (Carnuntum) and in Numidia (Tipasa)
- c.120: Voorburg renamed Forum Hadriani
- c.250: aggressive sea; c.270 abandoned
- G. Neumann, “Kananefaten”, in: Namenstudien zum Altgermanischen (2008)