- 23 June 47: born as son of Cleopatra VII and recognized by Gaius Julius Caesar
- After the death of Cleopatra's co-ruler Ptolemy XIV (August 44), Caesarion is made king
- 43: On behalf of the Senate, Cornelius Dolabella recognizes the boy-king.
- After 37, he is no longer mentioned in official documents; probably because Cleopatra now hopes to continue her dynasty through the children of Mark Antony, the twins Alexander Helius and Cleopatra Selene
- 34: Adopted as son by Mark Antony
- 32: Mark Antony divorces his wife Octavia; outbreak of war between Octavian and Mark Antony.
- 31: Mark Antony and Cleopatra move to Greece, where they are isolated by Octavian's admiral Agrippa; although they are able to win a tactical victory and break out of their isolated position at Actium, the campaign is a distaster and Octavian is able to achieve control of the east
- Cleopatra flees to Alexandria and opens negotiations with Octavian; her purpose is to save her children and keep the Ptolemaic kingdom intact
- 12 August 30: After Octavian has declined to negotiate, Cleopatra commits suicide; Mark Antony does the same. Their children survive,
- Caesarion tries to flee to Nubia and India, but is arrested and executed.
Egyptian title: Iwapanetjerentynehem Setepenptah Irmaatenra Sekhemankhamun ("Son of the avenging god, Chosen by Ptah, Dispenser of the justice of Ra, Living power of Amun"; "avenging god" is a common translation of Soter, "savior", one of Caesar's titles; it is also a title of the god Horus, the son of Isis [Cleopatra's mythical alter ego] who had to avenge the death of his father Osiris.)