Azitawataya: Neo-Hittite town in southern Turkey, now known as Karatepe ("the black hill") or Aslantaş ("the lion's stone").
- In the sixteent century BCE, Kizzuwatna (i.e., the south of what is now called Turkey, Cilicia) was conquered by the Hittites.
- In the early twelfth century BCE, the Hittite kingdom disintegrated, but there were several successor states. One of these Neo-Hittite states was Qu'e, which had as its capital Azitawataya.
- The Hittite origin of the Neo-Hittites did not rule out other influences. According to a bilingual Phoenician-Luwian inscription found in Azitawataya, its king Azitawata belonged to the House of Mpš, the Mopsus known from Greek sources as a hero from the Trojan War and the founder of various cities in the east. Azitawata also presents himself as ruler of the Dnnym (Phoenician) or Hiyawa (Luwian), which are renderings of two names the Greeks used for themselves, Danaoi and Achaeans.
- The art of Karatepe-Aslantaş betrays Greek influences. A relief of the god Bes documents an Egyptian connection.
- The plains of Qu'e were conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III (r.744-727), who appointed a governor, whose residence was Adana. However, it was not a secure possession of the Assyrian empire: after the death of Sargon II in 705, it became independent again under the old house of Mpš. The Assyrian king Esarhaddon (r.680-669) reconquered the area.