Livy, Periochae 61-65

Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic.

A large part of Livy's History of Rome since the Foundation is now lost, but fortunately we have an excerpt, called the Periochae, which helps us reconstruct the general scope. This translation was made by Jona Lendering.


From Book 61

[61.1] After he had defeated the tribe of the Salluvians, proconsul Gaius Sextius founded the colony of Aquae Sextiae, which was called like this because there is much water from warm and cold springs.

[61.2] Proconsul Gnaeus Domitius successfully fought against the Allobroges near the town of Vindalium.

[61.3] The reason for starting this war was that the Allobroges had offered refuge to king Toutomotulus of the Salluvians, and had supported him with all possible means when he devastated the land of the Aedui, an ally of the Roman people.

[61.4] [121 BCE] After a turbulent tribuneship, Gaius Gracchus occupied the Aventine with an armed mob, but, after the Senate had decided to summon the people to arms, he was routed and killed by consul Lucius Opimius. Former consul Fulvius Flaccus, Gracchus' ally in his madness, died with him.

[61.5] Consul Quintus Fabius Maximus, grandson of Paulus, successfully fought against the Allobroges and Bituitus, the king of the Arvernians.

[61.6] From the army of Bituitus, 120,000 men were killed; after the king himself had gone to Rome to make peace with the Senate, he was kept in custody at Alba, because his return to Gaul seemed not to be in the interest of tranquillity.

[61.7] It was also decided to arrest his son Congonnetiacus and send him to Rome.

[61.8] The surrender of the Allobroges was accepted.

[61.9] [120] Lucius Opimius, accused before the people by Quintus Decius, tribune of the plebs, on the charge that he had sent citizens to jail without trial, was acquitted.

From Book 62

[62.1] [118] Consul Quintus Marcius defeated the Stynians, a nation living in the Alps.

[62.2] When he died, king Micipsa of Numidia left his kingdom to his three sons Adherbal, Hiempsal, and Jugurtha (the adopted son of his brother).

[62.3] [117] Lucius Caecilius Metellus subdued the Dalmatians.

[62.4] Jugurtha launched an armed attack on his brother Hiempsal,

[62.5] who was defeated and killed. Adherbal was expelled from the kingdom, but restored by the Senate.

[62.6] Lucius Caecilius Metellus and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, acting as censors, removed thirty-two members from the Senate.

[62.7] Itnote also contains an account of disturbances in Syria and a quarrel between its kings.

Book 63

[63.1] [114] In Thrace, consul Gaius Porcius unsuccessfully fought against the Scordiscians.

[63.2] The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 

[63.3] 394,336 citizens were registered.

[63.4] The Vestal virgins Aemilia, Licinia, and Marcia were condemned for unchastity. There is a description of how this unchastity was committed, discovered, and punished.

[63.5] [113] In pursuit of plunder, the nomadic tribe of the Cimbrians came to Illyricum.

[63.6] Consul Papirius Carbo and his army were defeated by them.

[63.7] [112] In Thrace, consul Livius Drusus successfully fought against the Scordiscians, a nation of Gallic descent.

From Book 64

[64.1] Adherbal, attacked by Jugurtha and besieged in the town of Cirtha was killed in violation of a senatorial decree. [111] Because of this, war was declared upon Jugurtha, and consul Calpurnius Bestia, who was sent out to conduct this war, concluded a treaty with Jugurtha, without being ordered to do so by the people or the Senate.

[64.2] Under safe-conduct, Jugurtha was invited to Rome so that he might indicate the instigators of his plots (he was said to have corrupted many senators with bribes), and arrived. Because he killed some sort of king who was called Massiva and tried to claim the kingdom of the hated Jugurtha from the Roman people, Jugurtha risked standing trial for his life, and secretly fled. It is said that when he left the city, he commented: "What a corrupt city! It will perish as soon as it finds someone to buy it."

[64.3] [110] Deputy Aulus Postumius was defeated in battle by Jugurtha and added to this an dishonorable peace treaty, which the Senate preferred not to ratify.

From Book 65

[65.1] [109] Consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Jugurtha in two battles and devastated all Numidia.

[65.2] [108] Consul Marcus Junius Silanus unsuccessfully fought against the Cimbrians.

[65.3] The Senate ignored the envoys of the Cimbrians who demanded land and a place to settle. 

[65.4] Proconsul Marcus Minucius successfully fought against the Thracians.

[65.5] [107] In the country of the Nitiobriges, consul Lucius Cassius [Longinus] was massacred with his army by the Gallic Tigurini, a Helvetian tribe that had left its own country.

[65.6] After the soldiers who had survived the disaster had given hostages and half of their possessions, they arranged to be released unharmed.