Livy, Periochae 131-135

Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic.

A large part of Livy's History of Rome since the Foundation is now lost, but fortunately we have an excerpt, called the Periochae, which helps us reconstruct the general scope. This translation was made by Jona Lendering.


From Book 131

[131.1] [35] Although Sextus Pompeius had put himself under the protection of Marc Antony, he prepared for war against him in Asia, but was surprised and executed by his deputies.

[131.2] After Caesar had overcome a very damaging insurrection of veterans, he defeated the Iapydes, Dalmatians, and Pannonians.

[131.3] [34] Antony ordered Artavasdes, the king of Armenia, whom he had given a free-conduct, to be thrown into chains, and gave the Armenian kingdom to his son, who was born of Cleopatra; he had been captivated by her for some time, but now began to treat her as his wife. 

From Book 132

[132.1] Caesar subdued the Dalmatians in Illyricum.

[132.2] [33] When Marc Antony, because of his love for Cleopatra, with whom he had two sons (Philadelphus and Alexander), did neither want to come to the city nor lay down his powers when term of the triumvirate had ended, but instead prepared for war against the city and Italy, and gathered for this purpose as many naval as land forces, [32] and sent a letter of divorce to Octavia, Caesar's sister, [31] Caesar crossed to Epirus with an army.

[132.3] After this, an account is given of the naval and equestrian battles, in which Caesar was victorious.

From Book 133

[133.1] [30] Marc Antony, defeated in a naval battle near Actium, fled to Alexandria and, besieged by [Octavian] Caesar, in a desperate situation and above all misguided by a false rumor about the death of Cleopatra, killed himself.

[133.2] After Caesar had reduced Alexandria, and Cleopatra, to avoid falling in the victor's hands, had died by her own hand, [29] he returned to the city to celebrate three triumphs: one over Illyricum, a second for the victory at Actium, and a third one over Cleopatra; this was the end of the civil wars, in their twenty-second year.

[133.3] [28] Marcus Lepidus (the son of the Lepidus who had been triumvir) conspired against Caesar to make war, but it was suppressed and he was killed.

From Book 134

[134.1] [27] When Gaius Caesar had settled all affairs and all provinces had been solidly organized, he was called Augustus; in his honor, the month Sextilis received the same name.

[134.2] When he was holding assizes at Narbo, he conducted a census in the three provinces of Gaul, which his father Caesar had subdued.

[134.3] An account is given of the war fought by Marcus Crassus against the Basterni, Moesians and other peoples.

From Book 135

[135.1] [25] An account is given of the wars fought against the Thracians by Marcus Crassus and against the Hispanians by Caesar [Augustus]; the Salassi, a tribe from the Alps, were also subdued.