Livy, Periochae 71-75

Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic.

A large part of Livy's History of Rome since the Foundation is now lost, but fortunately we have an excerpt, called the Periochae, which helps us reconstruct the general scope. This translation was made by Jona Lendering.

From Book 71

[71.1] [91 BCE] Marcus Livius Drusus, a tribune of the plebs who wanted to reinforce the powers of the Senate, appealed to the allies and Italian nations and made them hope for the Roman citizenship; with their help, he carried by force laws on the distribution of land and grain, and also carried a law on jurisdiction to the effect that the juries would be made up from one half of senators and one half of knights.

[71.2] When he could not keep his promise to give citizenship to his allies, the angry Italians started to think about defection.

[71.3] Their gatherings and conspiracies and the speeches in the council of their leaders are reported.note

[71.4] For these reasons, Livius Drusus became hated even in the Senate, as if he had been the cause of the Social War, and he was assassinated by an unknown person in his own house.

From Book 72

[72.1] The following Italian nations revolted: the Picentes, Vestinians, Marsians, Paelignians, Marrucinians, Samnites, and Lucanians.

[72.2] The first act of war was by the Picentes, who killed proconsul Quintus Servilius in the town Asculum, with all Roman citizens who were in this town.

[72.3] The people put on the war dress.

[72.4] Servius Galba, who was captured by the Lucanians, was released from captivity by one single woman, with whom he had been lodging.

[72.5] The colonies of Aesernia and Alba were besieged by the Italians.

[72.6] The troops sent to the relief of the Roman people by the Latins and foreign nations, the expeditions from both sides, and the storming of cities are also described.note

From Book 73

[73.1] [90] Lucius Julius Caesar, the consul, lost a battle against the Samnites.

[73.2] The colonia at Nola fell in the hands of the Samnites, together with praetor Lucius Postumus, who was executed by them.

[73.3] Many nations sided with the enemies.

[73.4] When consul Publius Rutilius had fought against the Marsians, with mixed results, and had fallen in battle, his deputy Gaius Marius had more success in a battle against the enemy.

[73.5] Servius Sulpicius routed the Paelignians.

[73.6] When Quintus Caepio, deputy of Rutilius, was besieged and successfully repelled his enemies, and was given equal powers to Gaius Marius, he became reckless, was trapped in an ambush, and fell in the rout of his army.

[73.7] Consul Lucius Julius Caesar fought successfully against the Samnites.

[73.8] Because of his victory, at Rome, the battle dress was laid aside.

[73.9] To show the varying fortunes of war, the colony at Aeserna, together with Marcus Marcellus, fell in the hands of the Samnites, but Gaius Marius routed the Marsians, and Hierius Asinius, the commander of the Marrucinians, was killed.

[73.10] In Transalpine Gaul, Gaius Caelius defeated the rebellious Salluvians.

From Book 74

[74.1] [89] Gnaeus Pompeius routed [and?] besieged the Picentes.

[74.2] Because of this victory, the purple-bordered togas and other distinctions of the magistrates were assumed.

[74.3] Gaius Marius fought against the Marsians, with an unclear outcome.

[74.4] For the first time, freedmen were allowed to serve in the army.

[74.5] Deputy Aulus Plotius defeated the Umbrians and praetor Lucius Porcius the Etruscans. Both nations had revolted.

[74.6] In Bithynia Nicomedes was restored to the throne and Ariobarzanes in the kingdom of Cappadocia.

[74.7] [88] Consul Gnaeus Pompeius defeated the Marsians in an open battle.

[74.8] Because the citizenry was oppressed by debts, praetor Aulus Sempronius Asellio, who was deciding cases in favor of the debtors, was killed in the Forum by usurers.

[74.9] Itnote also contains an account of Thracian┬áraids into Macedonia.

From Book 75

[75.1] The deputy Aulus Postumius Albinus, commander of the navy, was killed by his own army because he was suspected of the infamous crime of high treason.

[75.2] Deputy Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeated the Samnites in battle and expelled them from two of their camps.

[75.3] Gnaeus Pompeius accepted the surrender of the Vestinians.

[75.4] After a successful campaign and repeatedly routing the Marsians, consul Lucius Porcius fell while storming one of their camps.

[75.5] This event gave the victory in that battle to the enemies.

[75.6] Cosconius and Lucanus defeated the Samnites in battle, killing Marius Egnatius, the most noble leader of their enemies. They accepted the surrender of several towns.

[75.7] Lucius Sulla subdued the Hirpinians, defeated the Samnites in several battles, accepted the surrender of a number of people, and proceeded to Rome to run for consul, having achieved more than most people achieve before their consulship.