Livy, Periochae 96-100

Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic.

A large part of Livy's History of Rome since the Foundation is now lost, but fortunately we have an excerpt, called the Periochae, which helps us reconstruct the general scope. This translation was made by Jona Lendering.


From Book 96

[96.1] Praetor Quintus Arrius crushed Crixus, the leader of the runaway slaves, and 20,000 men.

[96.2] [72 BCE] Consul Gnaeus Lentulus, however, unsuccessfully fought against Spartacus.

[96.3] Consul Lucius Gellius and praetor Quintus Arrius were defeated by the same.note

[96.4] At a banquet, Sertorius was killed by Marcus Perpenna, Marcus Antonius and other conspirators, during the eighth year of his command; he had been a great leader and against two commanders, Pompey and Metellus, he had often been successful, although in the end, he changed into a savage and prodigal man.

[96.5] Leadership of his faction was transferred to Marcus [Perpenna], who was defeated, captured and killed by Gnaeus Pompey, after the latter had recovered the Spanish provinces in the almost tenth year after the beginning of the war.

[96.6] Proconsul Gaius Cassius and praetor Gnaeus Manlius unsuccessfully fought against Spartacus, and the war was confined to praetor Marcus Crassus.

From Book 97

[97.1] [71] Praetor Marcus Crassus first fought victoriously with a part of the runaways, mainly Gauls and Germans, and killed 35,000 of them, including their leaders Castus and Gannicus.

[97.2] Then he completely defeated Spartacus, who was killed with 60,000 people.

[97.3] Praetor Marcus Antonius unsuccessfully fought a war against the Cretans, which came to an end with his own dead.

[97.4] Proconsul Marcus Lucullus subdued Thrace.

[97.5] Lucius Lucullus successfully fought against Mithridates in Pontus. More than 60,000 enemies were killed.

[97.6] [70] Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Pompey were made consuls (Pompey after a special senatorial decree, because he had not occupied the quaestorship and was still a Roman knight), and reconstituted the tribunicial powers.

[97.7] Furthermore, praetor Marcus Aurelius Cotta transferred control of the law courts to the Roman knights.

[97.8] His desperate position forced Mithridates to flee to king Tigranes of Armenia.

From Book 98

[98.1] Machares, the son of Mithridates and king of Bosphorus,note received the title of friend from Lucius Lucullus.

[98.2] [69] Censors Gnaeus Lentulus and Lucius Gellius conducted a strict censorship, removing 64 men from the Senate. 

[98.3] They celebrated the ritual cleansing of the state and registered 900,000 citizens.

[98.4] On Sicily, praetor Lucius Metellus successfully fought against the pirates.

[98.5] Quintus Catulus rededicated the reconstructed temple of the Capitoline Jupiter, which had been destroyed by fire.

[98.6] In several battles in Armenia, Lucius Lucullus routed Mithridates, Tigranes and their giant armies.

[98.7] Proconsul Quintus Metellus took over the war against the Cretans and besieged the city of Cydonia.

[98.8] A deputy of Lucullus, Gaius Triarius, fought unsuccessfully against Mithridates.

[98.9] A revolt of soldiers who did not want to go any further, prevented Lucullus from pursuing Mithridates and Tigranes and obtaining the ultimate victory; involved were the two legions of Valerius, which deserted Lucullus saying that their term of service was over.

From Book 99

[99.1] [68] Proconsul Quintus [Caecilius] Metellus captured Cnossus, Lyctus, Cydonia and many other cities.

[99.2] Lucius Roscius, a tribune of the plebs , passed the law that the first fourteen rows in the theater were to be designated to the Roman knights.

[99.3] [67] Gnaeus Pompey was ordered by a law, passed by the People's Assembly, to pursue the pirates, who had cut off the food supply. Within forty days he expelled them from the entire sea, brought the war against them to Cilicia, and gave land and cities to the pirates that surrendered to him.

[99.4] Itnote also contains an account of Quintus Metellus' war against the Cretans, and the letters exchanged between Metellus and Gnaeus Pompey.

[99.5] Quintus Metellus complains that the glory of his victory was stolen by Pompey, who had sent a deputy to Crete to accept the surrender of the cities. Pompey explained why this had to be done. 

From Book 100

[100.1] [66] To the great indignation of the nobility, tribune Gaius Manilius passed a law that transferred the [Third] Mithridatic War to Pompey.

[100.2] ...note his speech was excellent.

[100.3] Having subdued the Cretans, Quintus Metellus gave laws to their island, which had until then been independent.

[100.4] Gnaeus Pompey renewed the friendship with the king of the Parthians, Phraates [III], to wage war against Mithridates.

[100.5] In an equestrian battle, Mithridates was defeated.

[100.6] Itnote also contains an account of the war between king Phraates of the Parthians and Tigranes of the Armenians, and after this of Tigranes the younger against his father.