Antiochus XII Dionysus: name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 87 to c.83/82.
Successor of: Demetrius III Eucaerus (or Philopator)
- After 114/113, the Seleucid dynasty get fragmented. First, there are only a southern and a northern part, ruled by Antiochus IX Cyzicenus and Antiochus VIII Grypus
- 97/96: The Egyptian king-in-exile Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros intervenes in the south, where he makes Demetrius III Eucaerus and his (presumed twin) brother Philip I Philadelphus rulers in Damascus; they are successful in their war against Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
- Early 95: Death of Antiochus IX; Philip takes Beroea (modern Aleppo) while Antiochus X, the son of Antiochus IX, tries to establish his power
- Demetrius intervenes in the Hasmonaean kingdom, against king Alexander Jannaeus.
- c.89: Parthian invasion; end of the reign of Antiochus X, who is defeated by the Parthian leader Mithridates Sinaces and his ally Aziz the Arab
- Demetrius breaks off his war against Alexander Jannaeus and captures Antioch
- Demetrius and his twin brother Philip start to quarrel; Demetrius besieges Aleppo; Philip invites the Parthians to help him
- 88/87: Demetrius is captured by the Parthians and dies in captivity.
- Philip now seizes the northern part and is recognized in Antioch
- He does not control Damascus, where Antiochus XII Dionysus (a brother of Demetrius and Philip) becomes king.
- 83/82: Antiochus XII Dionysus is defeated and killed by the Nabataean Arabs; Damascus is seized by Ptolemy of Chalcis
- O. Hoover, "Revised Chronology for the Late Seleucids at Antioch (121/0-64 BC)" in: Historia 65/3 (2007) 280-301