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Bosra: ancient city, legionary base of III Cyrenaica, capital of the Roman province Arabia (modern Busra).
- The name "Bosra" means (in Nabataean and Palmyrene) "fortress"
- Settled since Early Bronze Age
- Caravans between Red Sea (along the King's Road) to northern Syria
- D12: contact with Egypt (mentioned Saqqara, later Karnak and Amarna)
- Gap in our knowledge (probably Aramaean, cf. Aram-Damascus)
- Nabataean, second city of the kingdom (after Petra itself); part of the final stages of the Incense Route
- Nabataean Gate
- 106 CE: annexed by Trajan; Bosra Traiana, capital of Arabia
- Base of Legio III Cyrenaica in the north (seventeen hectare, a bit small twenty is common); city itself more to the south
- 115 CE: earthquake and reconstruction
- Second century: theater, several cisterns, baths, perhaps the hippodrome
- Early third century: central arch
- Colonia (recognized by Heliogabalus?)
- Third century: circus
- 5,000 inhabitants
- Byzantine: octogonal building
- Cathedral and episcopal palace
- Ghassanids / Bahira legend
- 634 Captured by Arabs
- Umayyads convert main NS-street into shopping street
J. Dentzer-Feydy e.a., Bosra. Aux portes d l'Arabie (2007)