Sidon (Hebrew: צִידוֹן, Ṣîdôn; Greek: Σιδών): port in Phoenicia, modern Ṣaydā.
After the death of Artaxerxes III Ochus (338 BCE), civil war broke out in the Persian Empire and it would take quite some time before Darius III Codomannus (r.336-330) was able to restore order. In the meantime, the Macedonian king Alexander the Great had invaded the Persian Empire. In November 333, he defeated Darius near Issus, and went on to take the Phoenician towns: Aradus, Tripolis, Byblos, Berytus, Sidon, and Tyre. Except for the latter, all towns surrendered as soon as Alexander approached. In Sidon, he appointed Abdalonymus as king.
After the death of Alexander in 323, civil war broke out between his successors. For a long time, the Phoenician towns belonged to Antigonus the One-Eyed, but he lost his life during the battle of Ipsus (301). The victors awarded Phoenicia to Seleucus I Nicator, but Antigonus' son Demetrius managed to keep Sidon and Tyre.note[Plutarch, Demetrius 32.4.] In the end, it was Ptolemy who recaptured the city in 290.
Because it ought to be Seleucus' property, a casus belli had been created: this part of Asia, called Coele Syria, was to be contested between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires in several wars, but after the Fifth Syrian War, it was a solid possession of the Seleucid Empire.
In 111 CE, Sidon became independent. Official documents were dated to a Sidonian Era that begins in that year. The city's independence lasted for less than two generations, because in 64 BCE, the Roman general Pompey the Great added Syria to the Roman Republic. Officially, Sidon remained independent, and it continued to mint its own coins, but it usually had to do what Rome ordered.
After the Roman civil wars, which lasted until 30 BCE, a period of great prosperity started for the entire Mediterranean world. The Roman province of Syria, to which Sidon belonged, was no exception. People from all over the world visited the city and brought their ideas and cults (e.g., Mithras) along with them. The cemeteries of Sidon (Magharat Abloun and Ain el-Helwe) have offered splendid objects.
We know that a theater and several other monuments were built in the ancient city, but none of these have been identified. In Bustan esh-Sheikh, the Romans built a colonnaded street, an inn, and a nymphaeum, which have been excavated. Although veterans of III Parthica were settled in Sidon, it was eclipsed by Tyre, which became the capital when a new province, Phoenicia, was created. The emperor Heliogabalus (r.218-222) tried to give back Sidon some of its former glory: the city was promoted to the rank of colonia and recognized as the mother city (metropolis) of Phoenicia. Its official name was Colonia Aurelia Pia Metropolis Sidon. He also stationed soldiers of III Gallica near Sidon, but they were later transferred to Tyre.
Sidon always had Jewish inhabitants and it comes as no surprise to find Christians at a very early stage as well.note[Acts of the Apostles 27.3] Later, it became an important Christian center. A presbyter named Zenobius, a physician, is mentioned as a martyr.note[Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 8.13.3.] In 512, the Monophysite (Miaphysite) Christians organized a council in Sidon.
In 501/2, there was a devastating earthquake from which Sidon and Tyre suffered.note[Malalas, Chronographia 485, 12.] Fifty years later, another earthquake destroyed Berytus and it seems that the scholars of the School of Law resettled in Sidon.note[Agathias, Histories 2.15.] This, however, did nothing to prevent the decline of the city. In 637/638, Sidon was captured by the Arabs, who did not meet any resistance during their further conquest of Phoenicia.