Livy, Periochae 106-110

Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic.

A large part of Livy's History of Rome since the Foundation is now lost, but fortunately we have an excerpt, called the Periochae, which helps us reconstruct the general scope. This translation was made by Jona Lendering.

From Book 106

[106.1] [54 BCE] Julia, Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife, died, and the people allowed her the honor of a burial on the field of Mars.

[106.2] Several Gallic tribes, commanded by king Ambiorix of the Eburones, revolted.

[106.3] Cotta and Titurius, Caesar's deputies, were besieged with the army they commanded, and killed.

[106.4] And when the camps of the other legions were also besieged and defended with difficulty, the camp of Quintus [Tullius] Cicero among the Treverians, was after a battle liberated by Caesar.

[106.5] [53] Marcus Crassus crossed the river Euphrates, carried the war to the Parthian Empire, and was defeated in a battle [near Carrhae] in which his son also fell. With the remains of his army, he occupied a hill, and was summoned to a conference by the enemy leader, Surena, as if to speak about a truce. However, he was captured and killed in a struggle to avoid suffering the indignity of remaining alive.

From Book 107

[107.1] Gaius Caesar overcame the Treverians in Gaul, and crossed into Germania for the second time, but when he did not meet an enemy, he returned to Gaul. He subdued the Eburones and other rebellious tribes and pursued Ambiorix when he tried to make his escape.

[107.2] [52] Publius Clodius was killed on the Via Appia, near Bovillae, by Titus Annius Milo, a candidate for the consulship. Clodius was cremated by the plebs in the building of the Senate.

[107.3] There were violent and armed riots among the candidates for the consulship, Hypsaeus, Scipio, and Milo. To suppress these, Gnaeus Pompey was deputized ...note and, although he was absent, elected consul for the third time, without colleague. This had never happened before.

[107.4] After an investigation of the death of Publius Clodius had been decreed, Milo was condemned by the court and sent into exile.

[107.5] A law was introduced that Caesar could be candidate for the consulship while he was absent; this was not to Marcus [Porcius] Cato's liking, and he spoke against it.

[107.6] Itnote also contains an account of Caesar's actions against the Gauls, who had revolted almost without exception under Vercingetorix, leader of the Arvernians, and contains accounts of difficult sieges of several towns, such as Avaricum of the Bituriges and Gergovia of the Arvernians.

From Book 108

[108.1] Gaius Caesar defeated all Gallic tribes that were in arms at Alesia, and accepted their surrender.

[108.2] [51] Gaius Cassius, quaestor of Marcus Crassus, defeated the Parthians, who had invaded Syria.

[108.3] Marcus [Porcius] Cato was defeated when he stood for the consulship. Instead, Servius Sulpicius and Marcus Marcellus were elected.

[108.4] Gaius Caesar subdued the Bellovaces and other Gallic tribes.

[108.5] [50] Itnote also contains an account of the conflict between the consuls about who they should send as successor of Gaius Caesar. Consul Marcellus proposed to the Senate that Caesar should return to run for consul, although a law had been passed that he was to rule his provinces until the time of his consulship had come. The book also contains an account of the war conducted by Marcus Bibulus in Syria.

From Book 109 (which is the first dealing with the civil war)

[109.1] The causes and beginning of the civil war are described, together with the conflict about sending out a successor to Gaius Caesar, who refused to disband his armies unless Pompey disbanded his.

[109.2] Itnote also contains an account of the actions of the tribune of the plebs Gaius Curio, who was first against Caesar, but later supported his case.

[109.3] When the Senate had decided that Caesar was to be replaced, the tribunes Mark¬†Antony and Quintus Cassius, who tried to obstruct the senatorial decision, were expelled from the city ...note¬†The consuls and Gnaeus Pompey received special powers from the Senate, to see to it that no harm befell the republic.

[109.4] [49] Gaius Caesar entered Italy with an army to wage war against his enemies. He captured Corfinium together with Lucius Domitius and Publius Lentulus, set them free, and expelled Gnaeus Pompey and the other members of his faction from Italy.

From Book 110 (which is the second dealing with the civil war)

[110.1] Gaius Caesar laid siege to Marseilles, which had closed its gates, but left the siege of the city to his deputies Gaius Trebonius and Decimus Brutus and went to Hispania, where he accepted the surrender of Lucius Afranius and Marcus Petreius, deputies of Pompey, and seven legions at Ilerda. He let them all go unharmed. Even [Terentius] Varro, another deputy of Pompey, and his army were brought into Caesar's power.

[110.2] He gave the people of Gades the citizenship.

[110.3] The Massiliotes, which had been defeated in two naval battles, surrendered themselves to Caesar after a long siege.

[110.4] Caesar's deputy Gaius Antonius fought unsuccessfully against the Pompeians in Illyria and was captured.

[110.5] In this war, several Opiterginians from across the Po (Caesar's auxiliary troops) killed each other rather than be captured when their raft was surrendered by enemy ships.

[110.6] Gaius Curio, Caesar's deputy in Africa, fought successfully against Varus, the leader of the Pompeian faction, but was killed with his army by Juba, the king of Mauretania.

[110.7] [48] Gaius Julius Caesar crossed to Greece.