Livy, Periochae 91-95

Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic.

A large part of Livy's History of Rome since the Foundation is now lost, but fortunately we have an excerpt, called the Periochae, which helps us reconstruct the general scope. This translation was made by Jona Lendering.

From Book 91

[91.1] [77 BCE] Although Gnaeus Pompey was still a Roman knight, he was sent out against Sertorius with the powers of a proconsul.

[91.2] Sertorius stormed several cities and subdued several tribes.

[91.3] Proconsul Appius Claudius defeated the Thracians in several battles.

[91.4] Proconsul Quintus Metellus defeated Lucius Hirtulus, a quaestor of Sertorius, and his army.

From Book 92

[92.1] [76] Gnaeus Pompey fought against Sertorius a battle with an unclear outcome, because on both sides one wing was victorious.

[92.2] Quintus Metellus defeated Sertorius and Perperna with their two armies, but Pompey, who was eager to be part of the victory, fought with dubious results.

[92.3] Later, Sertorius was besieged at Clunia, but by repeated sallies he was able to inflict as much damage on the besiegers as he received.

[92.4] Itnote also contains accounts of the campaigns waged by proconsul Curio in Thrace against the Dardanians and of the many cruel acts committed by Quintus Sertorius upon his men; on false accusations of treachery, he executed many of his friends and fellow-victims of the proscription.

From Book 93

[93.1] In Cilicia, proconsul Publius Servilius conquered the Isaurians and captured several cities of the pirates.

[93.2] [75] King Nicomedes of Bithynia made the Roman nation his heir and his kingdom was transformed into a province.

[93.3] Mithridates concluded a treaty with Sertorius and declared war upon the Romans.

[93.4] Muster of the royal armies, infantry and naval; the occupation of Bithynia, how consul Marcus Aurelius Cotta was defeated by the king at Calchedon; the achievements of Pompey and Metellus against Sertorius ...note

[93.5] ...┬áin every aspect of war and the art of soldiery, he was their equal [lacuna] and having made them to break off the siege of Calagurris, he forced them to retreat in different regions, Metellus to Hispania Ulterior, Pompey to Gaul.

From Book 94

[94.1] [74] Consul Lucius [Licinius] Lucullus successfully fought equestrian battles against Mithridates and launched several victorious campaigns, but restrained his mutinous soldiers, when they wanted battle.

[94.2] Deiotarus, one of the tetrarchs of Gallograecia, crushed the deputies of Mithridates who tried to transfer the war to Phrygia.

[94.3] Itnote also contains an account of Gnaeus Pompey's victorious war against Sertorius in Hispania.

From Book 95

[95.1] In Thrace, proconsul Gaius Curio subdued the Dardanians.

[95.2] [73] Seventy-four gladiators escaped from the school of Lentulus at Capua, gathered a large number of slaves and workhouse prisoners, began a war under command of Crixus and Spartacus, and defeated the army of praetor Publius Varenus and his deputy Claudius Pulcher.

[95.3] Near the city of Cyzicus, proconsul Lucius Lucullus destroyed the army of Mithridates with starvation and swords, expelled the king - now broken by several disasters of war and shipwreck - from Bithynia and forced him to make his escape to Pontus.