Arsacids

The Parthian or Arsacid Empire was the most enduring of the empires of the ancient Near East. After the Parni nomads had settled in Parthia and had built a small independent kingdom, they rose to power under king Mithradates the Great (r.171-138 BCE). The Parthian Empire occupied all of modern Iran, Iraq, and Armenia, parts of Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, and - for brief periods - territories in Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine. The end of this loosely organized empire came in 224 CE, when the last Arsacid king was defeated by one of his vassals, the Persians of the Sasanian dynasty.

The chronology of the Arsacid kings of the Parthian Empire (and Armenia) is less well-understood than, for example, the sequence of Seleucid and Ptolemaic kings or the emperors of Rome. This information is based on the researches by G.R.F. Assar, as published in "Iran under the Arsakids, 247 BC – AD 224/227" in: Numismatic Art of Persia (2011). After 52 CE, another branch of the Arsacid dynasty ruled in Armenia (more).

247-211

Arsaces I

211-185

Arsaces II (Artabanus)

 
185-170

Arsaces III Phriapatius

 
170-168

Arsaces IV

 
168-165

Arsaces V, Phraates I

 
165-132

Arsaces VI, Mithradates I the Great

132-127

Arsaces VII, Phraates II

127-126

Arsaces VIII, Bagasis

(= Bagayasha)

 
126-122

Arsaces IX, Artabanus I

122-121

Arsaces X

 
121-91

Arsaces XI, Mithradates II

93/92-70/69

Arsaces XII, Sinatruces

(rebel king)

91-87

Arsaces XIII, Gotarzes I

87-80/79

Arsaces XIV, Mithradates III

 
80/79-75

Arsaces XV, Orodes I

75-62/61

Arsaces XVI

 
70/69-58/57

Arsaces XVII, Phraates III

58/57-54

Arsaces XVIII, Mithradates IV

57-38

Arsaces XIX, Orodes II

41-38

Pacorus I

(co-ruler)

 
38-2 BCE

Phraates IV

29-27 BCE

Tiridates I

(rebel king)

2 BCE - 4 CE

Phraataces ("little Phraates")

c. 6-8

Orodes III

8-12

Vonones I

10-38

Artabanus II

36-37

Tiridates II

(pro-Roman rebel king)

 
29?-47?

Vardanes I

29?-51

Gotarzes II

50-56

Sanabares

(rebel king)

 
51

Vonones II

51-78

Vologases I

 
55-58

Vardanes II

(rebel king)

 
77/78-79/80

Vologases II

78-105

Pacorus II

 
80-90

Artabanus III

(rebel king)

105?-129

Osroes I

105-147

Vologases III

115-147

Mithradates V

 
116

Parthamaspates

(pro-Roman rebel king)

147-191

Vologases IV

c.190

Osroes II

(rebel king)

 
191-208

Vologases V

208-226?

Vologases VI

214-224

Artabanus IV